Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is a medical condition in which the body regulates and uses glucose as fuel. This long-term condition results in rising in the sugar level in the bloodstream. High blood sugar levels lead to disorders of the nervous, circulatory and, immune systems. In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas does not produce enough insulin as needed by the body. Type 2 diabetes is typical in adults, but the increase in obesity has led to the rise in cases among younger people.

Diabetes diabetic concept. Measuring glucose


In type 2 diabetes, the body cannot efficiently use the insulin produced in the body. The early symptoms include:

  • increased thirst
  • weight loss
  • fatigue
  • frequent urination
  • dry mouth
  • itchy skin
  • blurred vision
  • increased hunger
  • slow healing processes

See a professional if you see any symptoms.


Type 2 diabetes is principally the result of two related problems:

  • Cells in the fat, liver and, muscles become resistant to insulin.
  • The pancreas is incapable of generating enough insulin required to manage blood sugar levels.

Being overweight and inactive are the key factors.

How does insulin work?

  • Insulin comes from the gland situated behind and below the stomach. Insulin controls how the body uses blood sugar.
  • Glucose in the bloodstream encourages the pancreas to produce insulin.
  • Insulin circulates the bloodstream enabling sugar to enter the cells.
  • The level of sugar in the bloodstream decreases.
  • In response to this, the pancreas produces more insulin.

In type 2 diabetes, this process does not work well. Instead of moving into the cells, sugar builds up in the bloodstream. As the blood sugar levels increase, the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas release more insulin. Eventually, the cells become damaged and stop producing enough insulin.

Risk factors:

Factors that increase the risk of type 2 diabetes are:

  • Being overweight or obese
  • Inactivity
  • Family history
  • Age
  • Race and ethnicity
  • Pregnancy-related risks
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome


Potential complications are:

  • Heart and blood vessel disease
  • Kidney disease
  • Nerve damage
  • Skin conditions
  • Eye damage
  • Slow healing
  • Hearing impairment
  • Dementia


Healthy lifestyle decisions can help prevent type 2 diabetes. A healthy lifestyle includes:

  • Eating healthy foods
  • Getting active
  • Losing weight
  • Avoiding inactivity for long periods

Treatment for type 2 diabetes:

The given tips help you in managing type 2 diabetes:

  • Include foods rich in fibre and healthy carbs in the diet. Eat fruits, grains and, vegetables to keep your blood sugar level steady.
  • Control your weight and eat at regular intervals. Keep refined carbs, sweets and, animal fats to a minimum.
  • Exercise and physical activity help in managing type 2 diabetes.

Medications for type 2 diabetes:

In some cases, lifestyle changes are enough to keep type 2 diabetes under control. Some medications are as follows:

  • metformin
  • sulfonylureas
  • meglitinides
  • thiazolidinediones
  • dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors
  • Glucagon-like peptide-1
  • sodium-glucose cotransporter-2

Each of the above medications can cause side effects. It takes time to find the best drug or combination of medicines for your treatment.

If your body does not generate sufficient insulin, you may require insulin therapy. Talk to a professional about your personal nutrition goals. Together, you might come up with a diet plan that suits your needs.

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